The book comprises chapters on light, reflection and refraction, optical system and cardinal points, thick lenses, dispersion, optical instruments, resolving power, polarization quantum optics, lasers, and fiber optics. In addition, the book consists of several diagrams and chapterwise questions to understand the complex concepts of optics better. About S. Chand Publishing S.

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Is it legal to download PDF textbook? Hamam Singh B. Two lamps ol points on the linc passing through them is the illumination ,1,,.

Since the pardcles are emitted travel in straight lines according body, they, in the absence of other fu! Agra Rajasthun l99l 9. It is very interesting to note. Show how thc wave theory and the corpuscular thmry of light account for a refraction and b total intcmal reflection of light.

TVo wave trains cf equal frequency and arnplitude and differing in phase can annul one ar! Mysore Puniab [Delhi Ilons. Rajasthhn The next ifiportant advance in the nahrre of light was due to the work of Clerk Maxwell. Derive the refraction formula for a thin lens 6gru on the basii of wave theory. But in the case of longitudinal waves. Deduce of lenglh focal for the expression an tight.

The controversy betwen the corpuscular theory and wave ttr theory existed till about the end of the eighteenth century. The phenomenon of intcrference can also be understood consideiing that light energy is propagated in the form of waves. Applying the principle of secondary wave points. Double refraction can also be explained on the basis of wave theory. Apply Huygens principle to derive the relation Te. Deduce the laws of reflection with the help fDelhi B.

What is Huygens principle? How would you explain the phenomenon of reflection and refrrction of plane waves at plani surfaces on the basis of wave nature of light? Sate and explain Huygens principle of secondary waves. Delhi Hons.

State and explain Huygens principle of secondary waves. Give the mathematicar theory of interference between two waves of amplitude ar and az with phase dif- case. Delhi Apply this principle for explaining the simultaneous reflection and refraciion of a plane light wave from a plane surface of separation of two optical media. Rajasthan l9g5 t9. This principle was explained by Huygens as t if they have not interfered at all. Each wave train behaves as if others are absent. The points shown by circles in the diagram will have minimum displacement because the crest of one wave falls on the trough of the other and the resuttant displacement is zero.

He allowed sunlight to fall on a pinhole s and then at some distance away on two pinholas A and B Frg. At any instant. The points shown by crosses in the diagram will have maximum displacement because. In such a case. These waves are of the same amplitude antl wavelength. Suppose For a path difference for a path difference x. Young demonstrated the experiment on the interference of light.

The two sources may emit light waves of largely different amplitude and wavelengtly2il the phase difference [etween rhe two may change with time. In all such cases. For minimum intensity at a point. Since the wavelength of light waves is extremely smajl of the order of l cm. The poins such as F are clark because the crest of one falls on the trough of the other and they neutralize the effect of each other. It means that the two sources must emit radiationioFttre same fectly similar in all respects.

The energy is onry t anffi. Spherical waves spread out from. I-et us consider the waves produced on the surface of water. The points such as E are bright because the crest due to one wave coincides rvith the crest due to the other and therefore they reinforce rvith each other. But for experimental purposes. From equation iv. Let a be the amplitude of the waves.. The phase difference between the trvo waves reaching the point P..

Here also the energy is not destroyed but only transferred from the points of minimum intensity to the points of maximum intensity. According to. If the path difference is a whole number multiple of wavelength ir..

As shown in Fig. It is equal to the uniform intensity? Lrt a screen.. Ttre point C on the screen is equidistant from the path diffeience berween the two wai. A and B. A and coherent the from D placed a distance at be a distance d. Interference A Textbook of OPtics points.

If the path difference it of half Wavelength. All the fringes are equal in width and are independent of the order of the fringe. The breadth of a bright to half the fringe width and is equal or a dark tringe is. If the overall separation of l0 fringes on a screen crn awa. Glieen light of wavelength Afrom a narmw slit is incident on. OPtics lnterference Herc. IDelhi B. Two coherent sources are 0.

Example 8. The fringes are formed on both sides of C. Two coherent sources of monochromatic liSht of wavelength A. A Youngb double slit experiment is arranged sttch that slit. The distance between two consecutive. The distance between the sources and the screen js. Calculate the separation between the third order bright fringes due to these two wcvelengths.

If now the source ilit is gradually opened up. The screen is at a distance D from the virtual sources. The overall separation of 5 fringes an a screen b the fringe cm away is I cm. For the fringes to be formed. The pencil of light from two. A point on the screen will be at the centre of a bright fringe.

A and B are two coherent sources at a distance d apart. These fringes are of equal width and are alternately dark and bright. No ref. To observe the. The point C is equiTheory. Measure the distance between the images of A and B as seen in the eyepiece. For this purpose.. The distance of the n th fringe from the centre with monochromatic light sF-B.

Suppose the lens is in the position t. Let it be equal to d.. Substituting the value of d.. Measure the distance between the two imin this case also. If the distance between the prism and the slit S is. As the angle is small. The second method to find d is to measure accurately the refracting u. Therefore d can be calculated. From equations.

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