Major points[ edit ] Haraway, the author, in Haraway begins the "Manifesto" by explaining three boundary breakdowns since the 20th century that have allowed for her hybrid, cyborg myth: the breakdown of boundaries between human and animal, animal-human and machine, and physical and non-physical. Evolution has blurred the lines between human and animal; 20th century machines have made ambiguous the lines between natural and artificial; and microelectronics and the political invisibility of cyborgs have confused the lines of physicality. These traditions in turn allow for the problematic formations of taxonomies and identifications of the Other and what Haraway explains as "antagonistic dualisms" that order Western discourse. These dualisms, Haraway states, "have all been systematic to the logics and practices of domination of women, people of color, nature, workers, animals

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Haraway argues that certain things need to be realized about her taxonomy. This is a long way of saying communications and biotechnologies are now of a piece, suggests Haraway. For example, philosophizing in an era of managed pregnancies and cloning now has to do with essentialist notions of human life than it does with the "design, boundary constraints, rates of flows, systems logics, and costs of lowering constraints" of population control.

In the social sciences, Haraway argues, it has become increasingly "irrational" to invoke concepts like primitive and civilized to describe populations. Instead, discussions of development and under-development, as well as rates and constraints of modernization, dominate. And in economics, the rise of export-processing and free trade zones have seriously undercut the notion of architectural centers of capital formation. Biology becomes cryptography. Haraway argues that where once biology was seen as a discipline in which "organisms were the object of knowledge", today biotechnology has rendered "the translation of the world into a problem of coding.

Haraway notes that ironies abound in biotechnology, not necessary at the level of old-fashioned morality, but rather at the level of code. As she puts it, "Human babies with baboon hearts evoke national ethical perplexity-- for animal rights activists at least as much as for the guardians of human purity.

Electronics renders the social world cryptographic In addition to biotechnology, communications technology has rendered the everyday world a problem of code, as well.

This refashioning of the biological world takes in the social science world as well; so much so that it is now impossible to speak of things like economics without resorting to the language of the network and the code. In this section, Haraway begins to widen the focus of her essay to economic matters.

While white men in advanced industrial societies are becoming more prone to "downsizing", it is women, Haraway argues, who are the preferred "home-workers" of the new economy. Haraway borrows the term "homeworker" from Richard Gordon, who uses it to describe not only the act of electronics assembly done mainly by women overseas but also the "feminizing" of labor in general.

Haraway argues that the feminization of labor is not new to certain segments of the population. The difference is that now "many more women and men will contend with similar situations," Haraway maintains, " which will make cross-gender and race alliances on issues of basic life support with or without jobs necessary, not just nice. Even though women are not disappearing from the job rolls at the same rates as men, argues Haraway "the feminization of poverty" has also become an urgent focus for women in the new economy.

The dismantling of the welfare state, too, will have major developments on gender and race in the new economy. One of these developments, Haraway points out, is that teenage women in industrializing areas of the Third World will simultaneously increasingly find themselves the sole or major source of a cash wage for their families, while being denied access to land ownership. In addition to labor reallocation, "the new technologies also have a profound effect on hunger and on food production for subsistence world-wide," argues Haraway.

The eradication of public life and the new economy. Haraway argues that as corporate privatization grows more pervasive in everyday life, communications technologies will simultaneously work to shrink public space. In perhaps the most specious argument of her text, she suggests that high tech military culture will continue to pervade individual imagination in the form of "video games oriented to individual competition and extraterrestrial warfare.

In spite of her warnings about the new economy, Haraway does not see the picture as entirely bleak. Indeed, because she identifies as a scientist and technician of sorts, Haraway is particularly interested in challenging the scientific establishment from within.

This working class is notable in two significant ways. First, women produce the majority of its labor. Second, this labor whether produced by women or men is feminized the context of the new economy. Haraway continues that in the new economy, poverty is feminized as well as labor.

In addition, she argues that as privatization grows larger, public space grows smaller for workers in the new economy. More and more individuals in the sciences, she points out, are resisting the military urge, something Haraway sees as pointing to a possibly more progressive politics in the future.

Today, homework economies and surveillance technologies make such distinctions impossible to maintain. To describe the fact that women today live in a world "intimately restructured through the social relations of science and technology," Haraway borrows the metaphor of the "integrated circuit" from theorist Rachel Grossman.

Essentially, an integrated circuit consists of a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. Today, integrated circuits are used for many different types of functions: as amplifiers, oscillators, timers, counters, computer memory, or microprocessors.

Haraway wants to make an argument here that in a similar way, women in the integrated circuit can have multiple functionality. To cite just one example, when Haraway considers "home" as part of an integrated circuit she sees the following connections: Home as women-headed household; home as site of serial monogamy; home as flight of men; home as old women alone; home as technology of domestic work; home as paid homework; home as re-emergence of home sweat-shops, home-based businesses and telecommuting; home as electronic cottage; home as index of urban homelessness; home as site of migration; home as module architecture; home as reinforced simulated nuclear family; home as site of intense domestic violence.

No reason for depression. Haraway understands that it may be possible to be "ultimately depressed" by the implications she lays out in her essay. Lurking in the integrated circuit, she prophecies, are also "emerging pleasures, experiences and powers with serious potential for changing the rules of the game.

Adding autobiography to the mix. Summary: In this section, Haraway further considers the ways in which the new economy has served to break down earlier distinctions between public and private domains. Haraway uses the metaphor of the "integrated circuit" to point out that categories like "home", "state" and "church" now function more like networked communications forms, rather than the separated, discrete entities they once under older forms of capitalism. While this may seem depressing to some, Haraway argues that this need not be the case, because feminist politics, like cyborg ontology, works as a series of "partialities" than as a totalizing whole.

She cites writer Mary Douglas for showing "how fundamental body imagery is to world view, and so to political language," and the French feminists Monique Wittig and Luce Irigaray for showing " how to weave eroticism, cosmology, and politics from imagery of embodiment.

Most significantly, however, Haraway mentions contemporary science fiction writers as "theorists for cyborgs. Offshore, she represents a woman "whom US workers, female and feminized, are supposed to regard as the enemy preventing their solidarity, threatening their security. As an example, she offers up the situation of young Korean women recruited from high schools, educated to function alternately in the sex industry or the electronics assembly industries.

Haraway argues that women writers of color write stories that detail "the power to survive, not on the basis of original innocence, but on the basis of seizing the tools to mark the world that marked them as other. Haraway calls writing by women of color to be the "pre-eminent technology of cyborgs. Haraway pauses at this juncture "to recapitulate" her position. These dualisms have been linked to a system of logic that must isolate "others" women, people of colour, nature, workers, animals whose task it is to mirror the self.

As Haraway puts it, "The self is the One" who is not dominated, who knows. Yet, she argues, " to be One is to be an illusion, and so to be involved in a dialectic of apocalypse with the other.

Haraway sums up her major argument in this essay thusly: "In so far as we know ourselves in both formal discourse for example, biology and in daily practice for example, the homework economy in the integrated circuit ," she writes, "we find ourselves to be cyborgs, hybrids, mosaics, chimeras. The novel death a severely handicapped girl whose brain was connected to complex machinery, in which machines serve as "prosthetic devices, intimate components, friendly selves.

On the promises of monsters. Haraway devotes the next section of her essay to what she has called in later interviews "the promise of monsters. But Haraway notes that in feminist science fiction, cyborg monsters "define quite different political possibilities and limits from those proposed by the mundane fiction of Man and Woman.

She points to the salamander, a creature in nature that routinely regenerates as a way of understanding what she means, here. In a similar way, Haraway argues, "We have all been injured, profoundly. We require regeneration, not rebirth, and the possibilities for our reconstitution include the utopian dream of the hope for a monstrous world without gender. We can be responsible for machines; they do not dominate or threaten us. Cyborg imagery suggests "a way out of the maze of dualisms in which we have explained our bodies and our tools to ourselves.

Finally, she admits that though both creation and destruction are bound to be part of this "spiral dance" of a cyborg future, she would still "rather be a cyborg than a goddess.


Donna Haraway



Ein Manifest für Cyborgs · von Donna Haraway | Essay 1985 | Kritik



Donna Haraway. A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism of the 1980s



Manifiesto Cyborg


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