Tiny OS, which can be seen as an example of a monolithic kernel. First of all, I will give you an introduction to Tiny OS, followed by its features and advantages. Tiny OS is an open source embedded operating system. It is designed for network and memory constrained systems.

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Tiny OS, which can be seen as an example of a monolithic kernel. First of all, I will give you an introduction to Tiny OS, followed by its features and advantages. Tiny OS is an open source embedded operating system. It is designed for network and memory constrained systems.

It mainly focuses on low power wireless sensor network systems and Internet-of-Things devices. Consequently, Tiny OS is lightweight enough to satisfy their requirements of an embedded device with not so powerful micro-controller with a small memory, and that operates on battery. Tiny OS was created at Berkeley University in , and later developed by many companies and universities.

Tiny OS and its applications are written using nesC. NesC is a structure component based extension of the C language. Now we will discuss the five basic concepts of NesC. The first one is the separation of construction and composition.

This is achieved by the fact that all programs in Tiny OS are built as components, and then they are assembled to form a whole program. Components have internal concurrency in the form of tasks. A component may be called via its interfaces. Second is the specification of component behavior using a set of interfaces. This means, in other words, the provided interface is just for representing the functionality of a particular component. The third one is regarding bidirectional interfaces.

This implies that interfaces define functions, which can be implemented by both commands and events. This provides the benefit that a single interface can represent a complex interaction between components. Four, is the static linking of components with each other and via their interfaces. This enhances run time efficiency, promotes robust design and allows for better static analysis of program code. Finally, a whole program compiler. In NesC, code is generated by whole program compilers instead of blocks.

Therefore, it is better for code generation and analysis. After this introduction, I hope you have main ideas of Tiny OS. Now, we go into the internals of Tiny OS features and advantages. Now, you may wonder how it can happen.

Previously, I mentioned the whole program compiler in NesC. It is used to remove dead code and applies cross-component optimization to remove redundant operations and minimize the overhead of module crosses.

In Tiny OS, context switch overhead corresponds to both, the cost of test scheduling and interrupt handling overheads. The interrupt overheads consists of both switching overhead and function overhead of the handler, which varies with the number of saved registers. In contrast to the other traditional multimedia applications, sensor network applications are different in terms of time and criticality of work.

Instead of chorusing a priority scheme to allow the correct ordering of the task, Tiny OS uses a simple scheduler to schedule based on a set of deadlines. Tiny OS with NesC compiler support debugging and helps to detect race conditions. In order to do this, synchronous and asynchronous codes are considered in Tiny OS.

In order to give you a better understanding of this process, synchronous and asynchronous code will be explained. Synchronous Code or SC is a code that is only reachable from tasks, while Asynchronous Code or AC is a code that is reachable from at least one interrupt handler. The primary goal of Tiny OS is to allow developers build responsive and concurrent data structures that can safely share data between AC and SC. So components often have a mix of SC and AC code.

As a result, there are potential causes of races. It is clear that non-preemption almost eliminates races between tasks. There are two options to avoiding such cases. The first one is to convert all the conflicting code to tasks only for SC. The second option is to use atomic sections to update the shared state. Next, I will discuss about active messages, which can be considered as the main communication abstraction model of Tiny OS.

Active messages are small packets. About 36 bytes also shared with one byte handler ID. Now you may wonder how active messages work. Let us see. A node dispatches a message using an event to one or more handlers that are reducer to receive messages. Handler registration is carried out using static wiring and a parameterized interface. Moreover, single hold datagram protocol and unified communication interface are provided by AM.

Higher level protocols providing multi-hub communication, are readily built on the top of the AM interface. Now we continue to discuss Tiny OS flexibility.

To give you a comprehensive understanding of this feature, I will explain characteristics which justify the flexibility of Tiny OS. First, Tiny OS supports fine-grained components. This implies that a complex application is composed from a large number or very fine grain components.

For example, the main code of Tiny OS consists of components. In addition, other 42 applications in the source tree use about 74 components each. A component is built with a small number of modules. And each module is from seven to around 2, lines of code.

Second, Tiny OS provides concurrent components. As I mentioned early, any component can be the source of concurrency. Events can be automatically generated by any component via by directional interfaces. In addition, concurrency bugs can be removed with the help of a static raise detection of NesC. Third, Tiny OS supports hardware and software transparency. Basically, the idea behind is to replace software components with more efficient hardware implementations to reduce energy consumption.

For example, using a single chip which consists of microcontroller, memory, radio transceiver and radio acceleration, consumes around microamps, while the standard server radio stack consumes 3. Last but not least is interposition. One aspect of flexibility is the ability to insert components between other components.

Whenever a component provides and uses the same interface type, it can be inserted or removed transparently. Another feature of Tiny OS is support for low power operation. To give you a comprehensive view of this property, we discuss three concepts. These are CPU power usage, power management interfaces and hardware software transparencies. First, in order to achieve low CPU power consumption, Tiny OS has a sleep mode to which it transitions when it is idle.

Tiny OS tries to sleep as long as possible to minimize power consumption. For example, when listening to incoming packets, the power consumption of the CPU is about 4. Second, it is difficult to save energy in cases of long-term wireless sensor network applications. In order to perform the tasks successfully, Tiny OS provides power management interfaces to allow self systems to be put in low power idle state.

For example, by powering down hardware or disabling periodic tasks, power consumption can be dramatically reduced. This job can be done via set of commands provide by Tiny OS. There are many interesting features of Tiny OS. However, we cannot discuss all of them here. In order to cover all these features and advantages of Tiny OS in detail, I suggest that you go through documentations in the suggested materials. In this example, Helloworld will be printed out the terminal of the device.

To learn details on how to write a program and run application in Tiny OS, you should come back later to our lectures, which have more detailed videos. Thank you for watching.


Introduction to TinyOS

TinyOS has been ported to a variety of hardware platforms. OpenVMS — Wikimonde Design and simulation of a modified perturbed digital chaotic signal generator for secure data communication. An Operating System for Sensor Networks stacks, and programming tools. If you wish, you may, at home, install version 1.


tinyos on stm32

This lesson shows you what a platform port consists of, and how TinyOS reuses as much code as possible between different platforms. The lesson will proceed by showing how to do the port for an imaginary mote called "yamp", which has a MSP microcontroller and a CC radio transceiver. The target audience of this lesson consists of those people that want to better understand what the difference between e. Note that the material covered in this tutorial is not strictly necessary for regular tinyos developers, and you can safely skip it if you have no intention of working down to the lowest level or developing new platforms. Chips vs Platforms Two key building blocks for any mote are the microcontroller and radio transceiver. Of course, both a microcontroller and a radio can be used on more than one platform. Given this multiplicity of platforms, it would be vasly redundant if each platform developer had to rewrite the software support for each chip from scratch.

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