COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MIND AND BRAIN SMITH & KOSSLYN PDF

This edition is now coauthored by Karin Sternberg, PhD. As you will see, this edition underwent a major revision. What Are the Goals of this Book? Cognitive psychologists study a wide range of psychological phenomena, such as perception, learning, memory, and thinking. In addition, cognitive psychologists study seemingly less cognitively oriented phenomena, such as emotion and motivation. In fact, almost any topic of psychological interest may be studied from a cognitive perspective.

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This edition is now coauthored by Karin Sternberg, PhD. As you will see, this edition underwent a major revision. What Are the Goals of this Book? Cognitive psychologists study a wide range of psychological phenomena, such as perception, learning, memory, and thinking. In addition, cognitive psychologists study seemingly less cognitively oriented phenomena, such as emotion and motivation. In fact, almost any topic of psychological interest may be studied from a cognitive perspective.

In this textbook, we describe some of the preliminary answers to questions asked by researchers in the main areas of cognitive psychology. Key Themes and Ideas The key themes of this book, discussed in greater detail in Chapter 1, are: 1. The key ideas of this book, also discussed at more length in Chapter 1, are as follows: 1.

Empirical data and theories are both important. Data in cognitive psychology can be fully understood only in the context of an explanatory theory, but theories are empty without empirical data. Cognition is generally adaptive but not in all specific instances. Cognitive processes interact with each other and with non-cognitive processes. Cognition needs to be studied through a variety of scientific methods.

All basic research in cognitive psychology may lead to applications, and all applied research may lead to basic understandings.

The separate intelligence chapter, formerly Chapter 13, has been eliminated. Chapter-specific revisions include: Chapter 1 1. An all new introduction to intelligence in Chapter 1 discusses what intelligence is, how intelligence relates to cognition, and three cognitive models of intelligence Carroll, Gardner, Sternberg.

New everyday examples include analyzing why companies spend so much money on advertising products that students use, for example, Apple iPhone and Windows 7. New example of how nurture influences cognition by comparing Western and Asian cultures.

Expanded discussion of rationalism vs. Enhanced introduction to section on early dialectics and explanation of what dialectics are. Expanded explanation of what being a structuralist means in terms of psychology. Expanded discussion of introspection. New example from contemporary times has been added to the section on behaviorism explaining how reward and punishment are used in modern psychotherapy.

New section on criticisms of behaviorism. New In the Lab of Henry L. Roediger, III feature. New coverage of control variables. New explanation of why control over experimental conditions is important. To the Instructor xix Expanded section on when to use correlational studies and discuss their potential shortcomings. New section on how other professions and fields benefit from findings in cognitive psychology. Chapter 2 1. New In the Lab of Martha Farah box.

Updated discussion of the function of brain parts reflects the latest literature. Expanded explanation of how autism relates to the function of the amygdala. Reorganized discussion of the hippocampus. Updated and expanded information on the function of the hypothalamus. New coverage of the evolution of the human brain. Updated and expanded coverage of the lateralization of function.

New explanation of vocabulary frequently used to describe brain regions: dorsal, caudal, rostral, ventral. Expanded coverage of myelin and Nodes of Ranvier. Updated coverage of neurotransmitters to reflect current status of knowledge. New coverage of genetic knockout studies and neurochemical ways to induce particular lesions in the section on animal studies. New detailed example of a study using ERP to help students understand the technique.

New explanation of the N effect. Updated discussion of research and imaging methods, including new references. More detailed explanation of the subtraction method. New explanation of how DTI works. Brain disorders discussion now begins by explaining why brain disorders are of importance to finding out how the brain works.

New section part of former Chapter 13, Intelligence on intelligence and neuroscience that discusses the connection between intelligence and a brain size, b neurons, c brain metabolism as well as biological bases of intelligence testing and the P-FIT theory of intelligence.

Chapter 3 1. Reorganized chapter first presents basics of perception, perceptual illusions, and how our visual system works; then, the theories of perception, perception of objects and forms, perceptual constancies; and last, deficits in perception.

New In the Lab of Marvin Chun feature box. New coverage of the Ganzfeld effect and experiment to experience the Ganzfeld effect. New discussion of light as a precondition for vision, and about the spectrum of light waves and which ones humans can see.

Reorganized coverage of how our visual system works. Visual pathways discussion expanded, updated, and now appears near the beginning of the chapter.

New introduction to approaches to perception that is, the part about theories , and a more thorough explanation of what bottom-up and top-down approaches are.

Direct perception is now discussed as part of bottom-up theories discussion. New sections on the everyday importance of neuroscience and direct perception. New section discusses template theory as an example of a chunk-based theory and connects visual perception with long-term memory. New section on neuroscience and template theories. New discussion of why it is so hard for computers to read handwriting. Updated coverage of pandemonium model and updated coverage of the localprecedence effect.

Expanded coverage of neuroscience and feature-matching theories. New section on neuroscience and recognition-by-components theory. Top-down theories section now includes discussion of intelligence and perception.

Reorganized discussion of Gestalt approach section. Reorganized discussion of the neuroscience of recognizing faces and patterns. New neuropsychological research on perceptual constancies. New coverage of stereoscopic seeing with just one eye in strabismic eyes. Expanded coverage of neuroscience and depth perception, with new research results. New section on perception in practice with respect to traffic and accidents. Chapter 4 1. Reorganized chapter first presents attention signal detection, vigilance, search, selective attention, and divided attention , then discusses what happens when attentional processes fail; habituation and adaptation, as well as automatic and controlled processes in attention are explored; and last, consciousness.

Included new introductory example for introduction to signal detection and vigilance: lifeguard on beach and research psychologist. Expanded coverage of neuroscience and vigilance. To the Instructor 4. Expanded coverage of the neuroscience of visual search and aging. Updated discussion of selective attention.

Expanded discussion of neuroscience and selective attention. Divided attention now integrates information regarding human intelligence. Updated and reorganized coverage of theories of divided attention.

New section on intelligence and attention includes discussion of reaction time and inspection time. Updated discussion of change blindness and inattentional blindness. Updated discussion of consciousness. Chapter 5 1. New discussion of intelligence testing and culture that describes problems of culture-fair testing and how memory abilities may differ across different cultural groups.

New coverage of long-term store and new techniques that are being developed to help students transfer learned facts into long-term memory. Expanded coverage of how experiments were conducted on the levelsof-processing approach and what their results mean in particular, why people with schizophrenia have memory problems. Expanded coverage of the phonological loop. New section on intelligence and working memory. New discussion of neuropsychological coverage added to the section on amnesia.

New explanation of double dissociation. Updated coverage in section on how memories are stored. Expanded explanation of the term long-term potentiation. Chapter 6 1.

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How do you address neuroscience in your cognitive psychology classes? Integration of Neuroscientific Data. Uses the most current neuroscientific data and research and incorporates it into the usual behavioral research topics to address psychological issues. This book uses findings in neuroscience to illuminate key distinctions in cognitive psychology. Surveys findings from neuroimaging, studies of patients with brain damage, single-cell recordings, studies of electrical and magnetic signals, and pharmacological effects on cognition. Provides students with what is not only most current in the field, but also what is most exciting. How do you keep students interested?

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