Psychological Therapy or Drugs The construct of intelligence has been widely studied as part of the psychology of individual differences. They range from theories based on a single factor to theories of multiple intelligences. Raymond B. Cattell is one of the most well-known authors in the psychology of individual differences. Cattell has studied intelligence in depth.
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Psychological Therapy or Drugs The construct of intelligence has been widely studied as part of the psychology of individual differences. They range from theories based on a single factor to theories of multiple intelligences. Raymond B. Cattell is one of the most well-known authors in the psychology of individual differences. Cattell has studied intelligence in depth. He developed a model based on two central factors: fluid intelligence Gf and crystallized intelligence Gc.
To understand the theory developed by Cattell in depth, it is essential to understand what its two main factors are. Therefore in the next section we will explain what fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence are. Fluid intelligence is basically shaped by primary aptitudes, including induction and deduction, relationships and classifications, and the breadth of working memory, or intellectual speed.
Then, it tends to decrease as we age and our nervous system breaks down. Gf can be evaluated with tests that measure the biological potential that each individual has to learn or acquire knowledge.
Examples of crystallized intelligence are verbal comprehension , evaluation of experience, spatial orientation, and mechanical knowledge. A person will develop their crystallized intelligence insofar as they invest their fluid intelligence in learning-based activities.
Tests for Gc evaluate the knowledge a person acquires through interaction with their sociocultural environment. If we can say that fluid intelligence represents hardware, then crystallized intelligence would be the software. They consist of primary mental aptitudes such as memory, cognition, and evaluation, similar to the skills in the Thurstone model. Second order factors: much more general than the first order. Here, present fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence stand out, which will determine the factors below them are expressed.
Third order factors: the most generic aspects of the model. It is historical fluid intelligence and is based on common learning investment see below from environments like school and family.
Cattell’s Intelligence Model and What It Can Teach Us
Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, especially scientific, mathematical and technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory.
Fluid and crystallized intelligence
History[ edit ] Fluid and crystallized intelligence were originally identified by Raymond Cattell. Fluid versus crystallized[ edit ] Crystallized intelligence is deductive   verbal  and numeric intelligence,  which is asynergetic , because its conclusions mechanically follow from their premises. Nettle found that the empathizing quotient had a 0. Nettle also found that the systemizing quotient had a 0.
Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence: What’s the Difference?
She has co-authored two books on psychology and media engagement. Cynthia Vinney Updated January 09, The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence proposes that there are two distinct kinds of intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason and solve problems in unique and novel situations, while crystallized intelligence refers to the ability to use knowledge acquired through past learning or experience. Cattell and developed further with John Horn. Fluid vs.