Phase 1 gave the gsmSCF the ability to bar calls release the call prior to connection , allow a call to continue unchanged, or to modify a limited number of call parameters before allowing it to continue. The gsmSCF could also monitor the status of a call for certain events call connection and disconnection , and take appropriate action on being informed of the event. In addition to supporting the facilities of Phase 1, Phase 2 included the following: Additional event detection points Interaction between a user and a service using announcements, voice prompting and information collection via in-band interaction or Unstructured Supplementary Service Data USSD interaction Control of call duration and transfer of Advice of Charge Information to the mobile station; The ability to inform the gsmSCF about the invocation of the supplementary services Explicit Call Transfer ECT , Call Deflection CD and Multi-Party Calls MPTY The ability, for easier post-processing, of integrating charging information from a serving node in normal call records  Phase 2 was defined as part of 3GPP Releases 97 and 98, in , although it is referenced in the stage 1 specification of Release Phase 4 was released as part of 3GPP Release 5 in
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The INAP was mainly used in the fixed network environment and it worked well. For example, many parameters are octet strings — leaving it up to the vendor to specify the precise encoding.
The other key functionality missing from INAP was mobility. The GSM system was becoming the dominant mobile network, and allowed for mobility between countries.
The mobile operators were now seeing a real need to provide services to their subscribers when they were roaming. First, someone invented a distinctive name and then the words were filled in later. For example, when standardization was working on prepaid service, it was ensured that we have toolkits for online charging. However, nothing will now prevent us from using these tools for other services as well. Much effort has been put into specification and testing specification work.
However, the effort has proven to be money well spent, as CAMEL will continue to serve the circuit switched networks for many years to come. Nokia Foreword by Gerry Christensen When I started my career almost 18 years ago, I never envisioned the impact that mobile com- munications would have on telecom, IT, and for that matter, consumer lifestyles and business as a whole. While not the only answer, utilization of intelligent network technologies such as CAMEL will gain increasing importance as a tool in the mobile operator toolkit for voice and data applications.
This is critical. Service providers must create and deliver VAS that generates incremental rev- enue as basic voice service becomes increasingly marginalized. In addition, momentum is gaining for wireless to be more than a medium for voice communications. The success in recent years of mobile personalization and entertainment applications and content such as ringtones, graphics, and games has proven the importance of non-voice applications to meet customer interests and derived new revenue for network operators.
CAMEL is used to query a database that contains name information, which allows for a network-based service rather than programming the GSM phone to recognize caller names.
ASL has applications for those markets that are not debit based or credit-challenged but rather want to just manage usage. Markets include parental controls and corporate resource management. The subscriber can decide how inbound calls will be automatically managed. Features include automatic call handling example: route all calls except boss to voice mail for the next hour fixed-to-mobile convergence capabilities such as routing to mobile when a fixed network number is called. CAMEL also enables hybrid applications that allow for both voice and data interaction.
For example, CAMEL is utilized in Teleractive mobile direct response marketing applications to allow the end-user to obtain information about products and services and to interact with brand and advertising agencies using data, voice, or both. An interesting thing to note is that the majority of the aforementioned services are subscriber- based and a few are group-based.
This means that an end-user or group must subscribe in advance to be able to use the service. The mobile operator customer care department processes the request and instructs the engineering and operations department to provision the Home Location Register HLR. CAMEL services may also be office-based, which means that any mobile phone user may use the service, whether in their home system or while roaming, without pre-subscription.
I have only scratched the surface with the few reference voice, data, and hybrid applications discussed in this foreward. The market for voice and data services for mobile is large and growing dramatically.
Network operators, developers, service and content providers must focus on both market needs and the most effective and efficient creation and delivery mechanisms. Rogier Noldus has really nailed the subject matter. I expect that, through use of this book, there will be more effective implementation of CAMEL-based applications and a lot more discussion about services heretofore unimagined.
CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network
Customized Applications for Mobile networks Enhanced Logic
CAMEL-Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network