BOUDDHISME THERAVADA PDF

Geschiedenis[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] De geschiedenis van het theravada gaat terug tot de Sangha de gemeenschap van boeddhistische monniken in de tijd van de Boeddha. Na het parinibbana overlijden van de Boeddha ontstonden er door splitsingen in de Sangha achttien verschillende scholen; de vroege boeddhistische scholen. Het theravada was de hoofdstroming, waar de andere scholen uit voortkwamen door afsplitsingen. Het theravada is de enige van deze vroege boeddhistische scholen die nog steeds bestaat.

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Inscriptional evidence of this school has been found in Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. For some time they maintained themselves in Avanti as well as in their new territories, but gradually they tended to regroup themselves in the south, the Great Vihara Mahavihara in Anuradhapura , the ancient capital of Sri Lanka, becoming the main centre of their tradition, Kanchi a secondary center and the northern regions apparently relinquished to other schools.

According to S. Bandaranayake: The rapid spread of Buddhism and the emergence of an extensive organization of the sangha are closely linked with the secular authority of the central state There are no known artistic or architectural remains from this epoch except for the cave dwellings of the monks, reflecting the growth and spread of the new religion.

The most distinctive features of this phase and virtually the only contemporary historical material, are the numerous Brahmi inscriptions associated with these caves. They record gifts to the sangha, significantly by householders and chiefs rather than by kings.

The Buddhist religion itself does not seem to have established undisputed authority until the reigns of Dutthagamani and Vattagamani c. The Sri Lankan Buddhist Sangha initially preserved the Buddhist scriptures the Tipitaka orally as it had been traditionally done, however during the first century BCE, famine and wars led to the writing down of these scriptures. The Sri Lankan chronicle The Mahavamsa records: "Formerly clever monks preserved the text of the Canon and its commentaries orally, but then, when they saw the disastrous state of living beings, they came together and had it written down in books, that the doctrine might long survive.

Mahavamsa , hagiographies, practice manuals, summaries, textbooks, poetry, and Abhidhamma works such as the Abhidhammattha-sangaha and the Abhidhammavatara. It established itself in Myanmar in the late 11th century, in Thailand in the 13th and early 14th centuries, and in Cambodia and Laos by the end of the 14th century.

Although Mahavihara never completely replaced other schools in Southeast Asia, it received special favor at most royal courts. This is due to the support it received from local elites, who exerted a very strong religious and social influence. This sculpture was found on the east coast of Sri Lanka between Batticaloa and Trincomalee and is evidence of the presence of Mahayana Buddhism in the Anuradhapura period of Sri Lanka. There are more than 2, kyaung there. The text, which is dated from the mid 5th to mid 6th century, is written on twenty-leaf manuscript of solid gold.

Sukhothai Historical Park , Thailand. Tantric Mahayana Buddhism was also a prominent faith, promoted by Buddhist emperors such as Jayavarman VII — who rejected the Hindu gods and presented himself as a Bodhisattva King.

This change in Cambodian Buddhism led to high levels of literacy among Cambodians. Tantric and esoteric innovations[ edit ] Main article: Tantric Theravada During the pre-modern era, Southeast Asian Buddhism included numerous elements which could be called tantric and esoteric such as the use of mantras and yantras in elaborate rituals.

In the 19th century began a process of mutual influence of both Asian Buddhists and Hinduists, and a Western audience interested in ancient wisdom. This took a high flight in East Asia from the s onwards with the vipassana-movement, and from the s also in the west, with western students who popularized vipassana-meditation in the west, [61] giving way to the development and popularisation of mindfulness-practice.

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Inscriptional evidence of this school has been found in Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. For some time they maintained themselves in Avanti as well as in their new territories, but gradually they tended to regroup themselves in the south, the Great Vihara Mahavihara in Anuradhapura , the ancient capital of Sri Lanka, becoming the main centre of their tradition, Kanchi a secondary center and the northern regions apparently relinquished to other schools. According to S. Bandaranayake: The rapid spread of Buddhism and the emergence of an extensive organization of the sangha are closely linked with the secular authority of the central state There are no known artistic or architectural remains from this epoch except for the cave dwellings of the monks, reflecting the growth and spread of the new religion. The most distinctive features of this phase and virtually the only contemporary historical material, are the numerous Brahmi inscriptions associated with these caves. They record gifts to the sangha, significantly by householders and chiefs rather than by kings.

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